Chemistry is the branch of science concerned with the study of elements and compounds, their properties, compositions, structures, transformations, and the energy released or absorbed by these processes. Every substance, whether it is formed naturally or intentionally, comprises one or more of the roughly one hundred recognized kinds of atoms. Although these atoms are formed of more primitive particles, they are the fundamental building blocks of chemical substances; for example, there is no quantity of oxygen, mercury, or gold smaller than an atom.
Therefore, chemistry is not concerned with the subatomic realm, but rather with the properties of atoms and the laws regulating their combinations, as well as how the knowledge of these qualities can be applied to achieve certain goals.

Chemistry is the study of the properties, compositions, and structures of elements and compounds, as well as their changeability and the energy emitted or absorbed during such changes.

The scope of chemistry

The use of natural compounds and the development of synthetic ones are also major concerns of chemistry.
There are several chemical processes that have been used by humans since they first started cooking, fermenting food, and manufacturing glass, and metallurgy. The products of modern chemical technology include things like vinyl, Teflon, liquid crystals, semiconductors, and superconductors.

No single individual alive today could ever claim to be an expert in every field of chemistry. People who are interested in specific subfields of chemistry can network with others who share their passions. Scientists that share a common interest in a particular subfield of chemistry eventually form the core of a new field. Organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, and industrial chemistry, as well as biochemistry, are some of the earliest subdisciplines to arise in the discipline of chemistry and continue to attract the most attention today.

Relationship Between Chemistry and Other Branches of Science

Understanding the natural world and everything in it requires a systematic approach, and that’s what science is all about.
Due to its sheer size, nature has necessitated the separation of science into subdisciplines that each investigate certain aspects of the universe.
The three major scientific fields can be broken down into the following specializations:

  • Formal sciences: the study of languages and their relation to formal systems. Both mathematics and logic are examples of this category of scientific study. thought considered as the “language of science.”
  • Natural Science: Studying the natural world through experiments and observations is at the heart of the natural sciences. Biology, chemistry, and physics are examples of these scientific disciplines.
  • Social Science: The study of human societies and the relationships between its members is at the heart of the Social Sciences. Sociology, psychology, and economics are all examples of disciplines that fall under this umbrella.

Understanding Chemistry

‘Chemistry’ can be defined as the systematic study of elements and compounds, their properties, compositions, structures, transformations, and the energy released or absorbed by these processes. Due to the immensity of areas of specialization that emerged early in the history of chemistry, such as organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, and industrial chemistry, along with biochemistry, remain of greatest general interest that deals with certain aspects of the universe.

Branches of Chemistry
Branches of Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Studying chemicals that consist of carbon atoms joined to hydrogen atoms via covalent bonds called carbon-hydrogen bonds makes up the field of Organic Chemistry, which is considered to be one of the most significant sub (hydrocarbons).
Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the study of the composition, characteristics, and reactivity of organic substances; hence the name “Chemistry of Life.”
Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that teaches students how to synthesize molecules with certain features and purposes, as well as how to recognise and categorise compounds found in nature.
Pharmaceuticals, gasoline, rubber, cosmetics, plastics, detergents, agrochemicals, and coatings are just some of the businesses that hire graduates.

Inorganic Chemistry

The structure, characteristics, and reactivity of molecules that do not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds are the focus of inorganic chemistry.
Simply said, it is a sub-discipline of chemistry that focuses on inorganic substances.
Synthesis and behavior of inorganic or organometallic chemical compounds found in the earth’s crust and other nonliving things are included in this field.

Physical Chemistry

Law and various concepts of Physics, including motion, energy, force, time, statistical mechanics, quantum chemistry, and thermodynamics, are applied to the study of the “physical attributes” of chemical compounds in physical chemistry.
The study of the physical properties of chemical compounds, such as their temperature, volume, pressure, conductivity, plasticity, strength, surface tension in liquids, solubility, viscosity, boiling point, melting point, color, and so on, is one of the most fascinating areas of chemistry.
Various mathematical models and formulae are used to investigate the topic.

Analytical Chemistry

Among the quantitative subdisciplines of Chemistry is one known as “analytical chemistry,” which focuses on the “identification, separation, and quantification” of chemical compounds.
Chemists and scientists can use their expertise in Analytical Chemistry to determine the concentrations of individual chemicals in a sample.
There are two subfields that have been established for this topic:

  • Qualitative analysis: is the procedure of determining the presence or absence of a specific chemical in a sample.
  • Quantitative Analysis: The process entails determining how much of the substance is present in the sample.


Biochemistry is one of the most well-respected subfields of chemistry since it investigates how molecules and cells function chemically.
This includes a wide variety of creatures, from plants to insects to viruses to microbes and beyond.
Biochemistry is the branch of chemistry that combines elements of biology, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical chemistry.
Diseases, the chemical foundation of heredity, and the mechanisms by which different organisms obtain their necessary nutrients from food are just some of the many themes explored in this field of study.

Industrial Chemistry

Producing novel goods relies on the application of chemical principles in industrial settings.
Many different processes, such as dissolving, heating, and filtering, are used to transform raw materials into a finished good.
The production of petrochemicals like ethylene, propylene, benzene, and styrene, as well as ceramic goods like silica brick, frit, and so on, are all examples of industrial chemistry.

Other Branches of Chemistry

  • Agrochemistry 
  • Astrochemistry
  • Coordination Chemistry
  • Forensic Chemistry 
  • Geochemistry 
  • Medicinal Chemistry 
  • Organometallic Chemistry 
  • Petrochemistry 
  • Phytochemistry 
  • Polymer Chemistry 
  • Nuclear Chemistry
  • Radiochemistry
  • Solid-State Chemistry 
  • Spectroscopy 
  • Stereochemistry 
  • Surface Chemistry
  • Thermochemistry 
  • Quantum Chemistry

Research into the molecular structure

The chemical properties of a material depend on its structure, and chemists can now discover the precise atomic arrangement of complex compounds using X-ray crystallography. A molecule is a structured collection of atoms. Each atom in a molecule is bonded to one or more nearby atoms by a chemical bond. The length of bonds and the angles between adjacent bonds are crucial in characterizing the molecular structure, and a thorough theory of chemical bonding is one of the greatest achievements of contemporary chemistry. The atomic-molecular idea is important to bonding theory.

molecular structure of h2o
Molecular Structure of H2O (Water)

Atoms and substances

Atoms, according to general chemistry, consisting of three fundamental particles: the proton, the neutron, and the electron. Although the proton and neutron are made of smaller subatomic particles, their substructure does not affect chemical reactions. As described in a previous section, the proton has a charge of +1, and the number of protons in an atomic nucleus distinguishes between different types of chemical atoms. Hydrogen, the simplest atom, contains a nucleus made of a single proton. The neutron has a mass approximately identical to that of the proton, however, it is uncharged.
Neutrons and protons coexist in the nucleus of all atoms besides hydrogen. Deuterium is an atom containing one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. Deuterium has the same chemical characteristics as hydrogen but a different mass due to its one proton. Hydrogen and deuterium are examples of isotopes, which are related atoms.

Covalent and ionic bonding

When two unique atoms approach one another, the electrons in their outer orbits can respond in two different ways. An electron in the outermost atomic orbital of atom A can move to an outer orbital of atom B that is more stable. The resulting charged atoms, A+ and B-, are known as ions, and the electrostatic force of attraction between them gives rise to an ionic connection. The majority of elements may form ionic bonds, and the resulting compounds are typically three-dimensional arrays of positive and negative ions. Frequently, ionic compounds are crystalline solids with high melting points.

Examples of the Role of Chemistry in Everyday Life

Constant chemical reactions are occurring all around us. Every day, the human body enables tens of thousands of chemical processes. All biological functions, from digestion to muscle contraction, entail chemical interactions. A few further examples of chemistry in human daily life are shown below.

  • Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that allows plants to transform water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. This mechanism serves as the foundation for the entire food chain.
  • Soaps and detergents used for hygiene purposes utilize emulsification, a chemical process. In addition, they are manufactured using a chemical process known as saponification.
  • Even the sunscreen that people use to shield themselves from the sun’s UV-A and UV-B rays is based on chemistry. These lotions and creams contain a mixture of inorganic and organic chemicals that filter or prevent UV rays.

Follow the link for further information on Chemistry in Everyday Life.

FAQ – Frequently Ask Questions

Q.1 What are the basics of Chemistry?

Ans – Chemistry explains that matter is composed of atoms, which are composed of smaller particles.
They have a positively charged nucleus that is composed of protons (which define them) and neutrons (which add mass and stability). Atoms and molecules are the basic components or units of chemistry. Chemists are always interested in finding and understanding the process of chemical change. More Basic Fundamental of chemistry is an introduction to the Periodic Table, stoichiometry, chemical states, chemical equilibria, acid & base, oxidation & reduction reactions, chemical kinetics, inorganic nomenclature, and chemical bonding.

Q.2 What are the main organic compounds found in all living things?

Ans – There are four main types, or classes, of organic compounds found in all living things: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

Q.3 What are organic chemistry examples?

Ans – Gasoline, plastics, detergents, colors, food additives, natural gas, and medications are some examples. Soap and detergent are distinct examples of organic chemistry, despite the fact that both are used for cleaning.

Q.4 What is the role of organic chemistry in our daily life?

Ans – Organic chemistry facilitates the production of several valuable items, such as agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food additives, plastics, paint, enzymes, cosmetics, and other synthetic materials.

Q.5 Who is known as the father of organic chemistry?

Ans – Friedrich Wohler is known as the father of organic chemistry by many scientists. Friedrich Wohler was a chemist by profession.

Q.6 What is inorganic chemistry and example?

Ans – The structure, characteristics, and reactivity of molecules that do not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds are the focus of inorganic chemistry.
Simply said, it is a sub-discipline of chemistry that focuses on inorganic substances. Synthesis and behavior of inorganic or organometallic chemical compounds found in the earth’s crust and other nonliving things are included in this field.

Inorganic chemistry has numerous applications in the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, drugs, fuels, and agriculture. In simple terms, the opposite of organic chemistry is inorganic chemistry.

Q.7 What are the main branches of chemistry?

Ans – Chemistry is the study of atoms and molecules, as well as their properties. Atoms and molecules constitute all matter. There are five principal branches of chemistry.

  • Organic chemistry
  • Inorganic chemistry
  • Physical chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry

Q.8 Which acid is called “King’s Water” and why?

Ans – Because of its potency, Aqua Regia is known as “King’s Water,” because it may be used to disintegrate gold. Traditionally, it was used to combine and distill salts, but today it is made by mixing three parts hydrochloric acid with one part nitric acid. Aqua Regia, for instance, is produced by distilling a mixture of two parts niter and one part Sal. Ammoniac at a very high temperature.

It is commonly accepted that sulphuric acid is the most powerful of the acids, whereas nitric acid is the most powerful of the weak acids.

Q.9 What is a chemical change? Is cooking an egg a chemical change?

Ans- As an example, sugar dissolves in water, and the lake freezes over in the winter. Some of the shifts are what chemists would call “chemical changes,” while others are not. When substances are combined to form something new and distinct from the original ingredients, a chemical change has occurred.

Yes, One common example of a chemical change is the transformation of the egg white and egg yolk change from liquid to solid. Egg proteins solidify in response to high temperatures.

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